Engaging ideas, transforming minds
Engaging ideas, transforming minds

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Gender and Women’s Studies provides an essential introduction to key issues, approaches, and concerns of the field. This comprehensive anthology celebrates a diversity of influential feminist thought on a broad range of topics using analyses sensitive to the intersections of gender, race, class, ability, age, and sexuality. Drawing on contemporary and classic pieces, the carefully selected and edited readings centre Indigenous, racialized, disabled, and queer voices. With over sixty percent new content, this thoroughly updated second edition contains infographics and original activist artwork; a new section on gender, migration, and citizenship; and new chapters on sex work as labour, the politics of veiling, trans and queer identities, Indigenous sovereignty, decolonization, masculinity, online activism, and contemporary social justice movements including Black Lives Matter and Idle No More. Concerned with the past, present, and future of gender identity, gendered representations, feminism, and activism, this book is an indispensable resource for students in gender and women’s studies classrooms across Canada and the United States.


  • sixty percent new content featuring diverse authors and issues
  • multiple genres and styles to engage students: scholarly articles, interviews, fact sheets, reports, blog posts, poetry, artwork, and personal narratives
  • includes Canadian, North American, Indigenous, and global content

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements xvii

Introduction: Mapping the Terrain

of Gender and Women’s Studies 1


Part 1A: This Is What a Feminist Looks Like 16

CHAPTER 1: Excerpts from Feminism Is for Everybody, bell hooks 16

CHAPTER 2: What’s Feminism Done (For Me) Lately?, Victoria L. Bromley 20

Bad Feminist Manifesto, Roxane Gay 35

CHAPTER 3: Anishinaabe-kwe and/or Indigenous Feminist?, Wanda Nanibush 37

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 2:15 Indigenous Feminists to Know, Read, and Listen To, Abaki Be

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 3:Activist Insight: Alice Walker (1944–) 45

CHAPTER 4: The Historical Case for Feminism, Estelle Freedman 46

CHAPTER 5: This Is What a Feminist Looks Like, Shira Tarrant 51

Part 1B: Diversity and Intersectionality 57

CHAPTER 6: Why Intersectionality Can’t Wait, Kimberlé Crenshaw 57

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 4:The Dangers of a Single Story, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie 60

CHAPTER 7: The Myth of Shared Womanhood and How It Perpetuates Inequality, Mia McKenzie 62

CHAPTER 8: Intersectional Feminist Frameworks: A Primer, Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women (CRIAW) 65

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 5: Conceptualizing Intersectionality 70

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 6: Activist Insight: Sojourner Truth (1797–1883) 72

CHAPTER 9: Reformulating the Feminist Perspective: Giving Voice to Women with Disabilities, Neita Kay Israelite and Karen Swartz 75

Part 1C: Accounting for Inequalities 83

CHAPTER 10: The Question of Gender, Raewyn Connell and Rebecca Pearse 83

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 7: Because It’s 2016!, Canadian Feminist Alliance for International Action (FAFIA) 90

CHAPTER 11: Conceptual Guide to the Unpaid Work Module, Marion Werner, Leah F. Vosko, Angie Deveau, Giordana Pimentel, and Deatra Walsh, with past contributions from Abetha Mahalingam, Nancy Zukewich, Krista Scott-Dixon, Megan Ciurysek, and Vivian Ngai 96

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 8: Unpaid Work: A Global View 104


Part 2A: The Construction of Sexed Bodies 109

CHAPTER 12: Introduction to Beyond the Natural Body, Nelly Oudshoorn 109

ACTIVIST ART 1: Assigned Male, Sophie Labelle 114

CHAPTER 13: How the Practice of Sex-Testing Targets Female Olympic Athletes, Kate Allen 115

CHAPTER 14: Contesting Intersex, Georgiann Davis 121

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 9: Defining Genitals: Who Will Make Room for the Intersexed? 130

CHAPTER 15: Dueling Dualisms, Anne Fausto-Sterling 132

Part 2B: The Making of “Difference” and Inequalities 144

CHAPTER 16: Women’s Brains, Stephen Gould 144

CHAPTER 17: Freaks and Queers, Eli Clare 149

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 10: Imagining Disability Futures, Alison Kafer 163
ACTIVIST ART 2: Alison Lapper Pregnant, Marc Quinn 167

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 11: On Race and Racism 169

CHAPTER 18: Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving?, Lila Abu-Lughod 172

ACTIVIST ART 3: Technicolor Muslimah, Saba Taj 182

Part 2C: Gender Construction and Performativity 184

CHAPTER 19: X: A Fabulous Child’s Story, Lois Gould 184

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 12: Understanding Masculinities: The Work of Raewyn Connell 190

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 13: It’s the Masculinity, Stupid!, Jackson Katz and Jeremy Earp

CHAPTER 20: Gender in Personal Life, Raewyn Connell and Rebecca Pearse 196

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 14: Transfeminist Terms and Concepts, A. Finn Enke 206

CHAPTER 21: Between the Village and the Village People: Negotiating Community, Ethnicity, and Safety in Gender Fluid Parenting, May Friedman 210

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 15: Men and Feminism, The White Ribbon Campaign 217

CHAPTER 22: Troubling Genders, Subverting Identities: An Interview with Judith Butler, Vasu Reddy and Judith Butler 220

Part 2D: The Construction of Sexuality 226

CHAPTER 23: Becoming 100 Percent Straight, Michael A. Messner 226

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 16: The Heterosexual Questionnaire, Martin Rochlin 233

CHAPTER 24: The Ethics of Genetic Research on Sexual Orientation, Udo Schüklenk, Edward Stein, Jacinta Kerin, and William Byne 235

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 17: Homophobia, Heterosexism, and Heteronormativity 241

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 18: The “Fruit Machine,” Sherry Aske and Trevor Pritchard 244

CHAPTER 25: Loving Women in the Modern World, Leila J. Rupp 246

CHAPTER 26: “Stand Up” for Exclusion? Queer Pride, Ableism, and Inequality, Danielle Peers and Lindsay Eales 257


Part 3A: Thinking about Difference and Identity 262

CHAPTER 27: Stereotyping As a Signifying Practice, Stuart Hall 262

CHAPTER 28: Undoing the “Package Picture” of Cultures, Uma Narayan 265

ACTIVIST ART 4: Miss Canadiana, Camille Turner 268

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 19: How to Know If You Are White, Mia McKenzie 270

CHAPTER 29: Women’s Experience of Racism: How Race and Gender Interact, Marika Morris, Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women (CRIAW) 272

CHAPTER 30: The Hall of Shame: Lies, Masks, and Respectful Femininity, Amita Handa 282

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 20: Activist Insight: Franchesca Ramsey on Microaggressions and Being an Ally 290

Part 3B: Histories and Legacies of Colonialism and Imperialism 291

CHAPTER 31: The Secret of Slavery in Canada, Afua Cooper 291

ACTIVIST ART 5: You Are My Sunshine, Wangechi Mutu 303

CHAPTER 32: Black Women Rage, Wendy Brathwaite 305

CHAPTER 33: The Construction of a Negative Identity, Kim Anderson 307

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 21: Colonization and the Indian Act 319

ACTIVIST ART 6: Indian Act, Nadia Myre 323

CHAPTER 34: Regulating Native Identity by Gender, Bonita Lawrence 325

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 22: Colonization and Residential Schools 334

ACTIVIST ART 7: Anishinaabe-kwe’s Resilience, Shirley Ida Williams née Pheasant 336

Part 3C: Indigenous Women: Resistance and Resurgence 338

CHAPTER 35: Nishnaabeg Resurgence: Stories from Within, Leanne Betasamosake Simpson 338

CHAPTER 36: The Braiding Histories Stories, Susan D. Dion and Michael R. Dion 349

CHAPTER 37: The Cattle Thief (1894), E. Pauline Johnson 355

CHAPTER 38: I Am Not Your Princess (1988), Chrystos 358

CHAPTER 39: “You Can’t Change the Indian Act?,” Shirley Bear with the Tobique Women’s Group 361

CHAPTER 40: The Eagle Has Landed: Native Women, Leadership, and Community Development, Sylvia Maracle 373


Part 4A: Cultural Representations and the Creation of Desire 383

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 23: Gender Play: Marketing to Girls, Sharon Lamb, Lyn Mikel Brown, and Peggy Orenstein 383

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 24: Ways of Seeing, John Berger 386

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 25: “Eating the Other”: Desire and Resistance, bell hooks 388

CHAPTER 41: Postfeminist Media Culture: Elements of a Sensibility, Rosalind Gill 390

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 26: Disney’s Version of Girlhood, Sharon Lamb and Lyn Mikel Brown 401

CHAPTER 42: The Trouble with White Feminism: Whiteness, Digital Feminism, and the Intersectional Internet, Jessie Daniels 404

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 27: Activist Insight: Suey Park #NotYourAsianSidekick 414

Part 4B: Regulating Bodies and Desires 417

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 28: If Men Could Menstruate: A Political Fantasy, Gloria Steinem 417

CHAPTER 43: Why Is America So Obsessed with Virginity?, Anastasia Kousakis and Jessica Valenti 419

ACTIVIST ART 8: CLITERACY, 100 Natural Laws and Άδάμας (unconquerable), Sophia Wallace 424

CHAPTER 44: The Facilities, Ivan Coyote 426

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 29: The New Sex Ed, Forward Together 429

Part 4C: Beauty Projects: Conformity and Resistance 432

CHAPTER 45: Through the Mirror of Beauty Culture, Carla Rice 432

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 30: Activist Insight: Intersectional Body Activism 450

CHAPTER 46: Body Beautiful/Body Perfect: Where Do Women with Disabilities Fit In?, Francine Odette 451

Part 4D: Politics of Health: From Medicalization to Health Care Reform 454

CHAPTER 47: The Women’s Health Movement in Canada: Looking Back and Moving Forward, Madeline Boscoe, Gwynne Basen, Ghislaine Alleyne, Barbara Bourrier-Lacroix, and Susan White of the Canadian Women’s Health Network 454

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 31: Activist Insight: Our Bodies Ourselves 463

CHAPTER 48: Women, Disability, and the Right to Health, Paula C. Pinto 465

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 32: Understanding the Social Determinants of Health 476

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 33: How Sexism and Racism Determine Health 478

CHAPTER 49: First Peoples, Second Class Treatment, Billie Allan and Janet Smylie 480

CHAPTER 50: HIV/AIDS, Globalization, and the International Women’s Movement, Sisonke Msimang 490

Part 4E: Reproductive Rights and Justice 495

CHAPTER 51: The Women Are Coming: The Abortion Caravan, Judy Rebick 495

CHAPTER 52: The Coercive Sterilization of Aboriginal Women in Canada, Karen Stote 502

CHAPTER 53: Debating Feminist Futures: Slippery Slopes, Cultural Anxiety, and the Case of the Deaf Lesbians, Alison Kafer 513

CHAPTER 54: A Primer on Reproductive Justice and Social Change, Loretta Ross, Rickie Solinger, and the Population and Development Program at Hampshire College 525

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 34: Reproductive Rights around the World 531

Part 4F: Gender Violence 535

CHAPTER 55: Toronto and the Runaway Wives, Margo Goodhand 535

CHAPTER 56: The Ultimate Rape Victim, Jane Doe 541

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 35: Activist Insight: 10 Things Men Can Do to Prevent Gender Violence, Jackson Katz 547

CHAPTER 57: Digital Defense: Black Feminists Resist Violence with Hashtag Activism, Sherri Williams 549

CHAPTER 58: More Than a Poster Campaign: Redefining Colonial Violence, Sarah Hunt 552

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 36: Murders and Disappearances of Aboriginal Women and Girls, Canadian Feminist Alliance for International Action (FAFIA) 555

ACTIVIST ART 9: Walking With Our Sisters 556

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 37: Every Class in Every School, Catherine Taylor and Tracey Peter 558


Part 5A: Gender and Global Restructuring 563

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 38: What Is Neo-Liberal Globalization?, Alison Jaggar 563

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 39: The IMF: Violating Women Since 1945, Kavita Ramdas and Christine Ahn 565

CHAPTER 59: The Gendered Politics and Violence of Structural Adjustment: A View from Jamaica, Faye V. Harrison 569

CHAPTER 60: Women’s Labor Is Never Cheap: Gendering Global Blue Jeans and Bankers, Cynthia Enloe 577

CHAPTER 61: Women behind the Labels: Worker Testimonies from Central America, STITCH and the Maquila Solidarity Network 588

CHAPTER 62: Trump and National Neoliberalism, Sasha Breger Bush 595

Part 5B: Gender, Migration, and Citizenship 599

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 40: No One Is Illegal 599

CHAPTER 63: Undoing Border Imperialism, Harsha Walia and Jo-Anne Lee 601

CHAPTER 64: Immigrant Women in Canada and the United States, Leslie Nichols and Vappu Tyyskä 609

CHAPTER 65: The Door of No Return, Leah Lakshmi Piepzna-Samarasinha 620

CHAPTER 66: Seeking Refuge from Homophobic and Transphobic Persecution, Sharalyn Jordan and Christine Morrissey 622

Part 5C: On (Not) Getting By in North America 626

CHAPTER 67: Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America, Barbara Ehrenreich 626

CHAPTER 68: When Sex Works: Labour Solidarity for Sex Workers Has Come a Long Way, but More Can Be Done, Jenn Clamen and Kara Gillies 637

CHAPTER 69: We Speak for Ourselves: Anti-Colonial and Self-Determined Responses to Young People Involved in the Sex Trade, JJ and Ivo 640

CHAPTER 70: Factsheet: Women and Restructuring in Canada, Deborah Stienstra 644

CHAPTER 71: The Leaner, Meaner Welfare Machine: The Ontario Conservative Government’s Ideological and Material Attack on Single Mothers, Margaret Hillyard Little 652

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 41: Ontario Social Assistance Doesn’t Meet Basic Human Needs, Elaine Power 664

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 42: Homelessness in Canada 666

CHAPTER 72: Fast Facts: Four Things to Know about Women and Homelessness in Canada, Sadie McInnes 667

CHAPTER 73: The Little Voices of Nunavut: A Study of Women’s Homelessness North of 60, Qulliit Nunavut Status of Women Council 670


Part 6A: Feminist and Social Justice Movements in North America 678

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 43: Activist Insight: The Idle No More Manifesto, Jessica Gordon and the Founders of Idle No More 678

CHAPTER 74: Idle No More: Indigenous Activism and Feminism, Sonja John 680

CHAPTER 75: How a Black Lives Matter Toronto Co-Founder Sees Canada, Zane Schwartz and Janaya Khan 688

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 44: 9 Ways We Can Make Social Justice Movements Less Elitist and More Accessible, Kai Cheng Thom 692

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 45: A Sense of Place: Expressions of Trans Activism North of Lake Nipissing, Grey Kimber Piitaapan Muldoon, with Dan Irving 697

CHAPTER 76: The Future of Feminism, Judy Rebick 700

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 46: Activist Insight: This Country’s History Cannot Be Deleted, Angela Y. Davis 707

Part 6B: Transnational Feminisms: Challenges and Possibilities 709

CHAPTER 77: Transnational Feminism, Corinne L. Mason 709

CHAPTER 78: Defying, Producing, and Overlooking Stereotypes? The Complexities of Mobilizing “Grandmotherhood” as Political Strategy, May Chazan and Stephanie Kittmer 724

CHAPTER 79: How Young Feminists Are Tackling Climate Justice in 2016, Maria Alejandra Rodriguez Acha 733

ACTIVIST ART 10: Puna Kuakea, Joy Enomoto 737

CHAPTER 80: Feminisms and the Social Media Sphere, Mehreen Kasana 739

SNAPSHOTS & SOUNDWAVES 47: Feminism without Borders 746
Copyright Acknowledgements 749


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